Text and images are all around us and are used in various ways, for instance for movie posters or advertising campaigns. How text and images are semantically related to each other has been studied extensively, as well as how people process and comprehend them. Another perspective is to look at how text and images structurally relate to each other. They can be grouped into four text-image relationships: inherent, emergent, adjoined, and independent. The present study investigated what the influence of text-image relationships on the processing and comprehension of text-image combined presentations was with the manipulation of the congruence of the text. Participants had to judge whether text-image
combinations, with statements placed according to the relationship in or near the image, as true or false. This resulted in that congruent text-image relationships were processed faster and comprehended better than incongruent text-image relationships. Congruent text-image
relationships did not differ from each other regarding processing, but incongruent text-image relationships did. This might be explained by the integration process of the text and the image, as this should be easier and faster when the text and the image convey the same meaning. Whether this case holds if the cultural background of the participants is taken into account would be a suggestion for future research. As cultural background influences, for instance, the way people perceive color and therefore this might also influence the comprehension and processing of text-image combined presentations.

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